Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

v3.19.2
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
6 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2019
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

NOTE 3 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

 

Use of Estimates

 

The preparation of the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from these estimates. Significant estimates during the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018 include the allowance for doubtful accounts, reserve for obsolete inventory, the useful life of property and equipment and investment in real estate and intangible assets, assumptions used in assessing impairment of long-term assets, valuation of deferred tax assets and the associated valuation allowances, and valuation of stock-based compensation.

 

Fair Value of Financial Instruments and Fair Value Measurements

 

The Company adopted the guidance of Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 820 for fair value measurements which clarifies the definition of fair value, prescribes methods for measuring fair value, and establishes a fair value hierarchy to classify the inputs used in measuring fair value as follows:

 

Level 1-Inputs are unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities available at the measurement date.

 

Level 2-Inputs are unadjusted quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar assets and liabilities in markets that are not active, inputs other than quoted prices that are observable, and inputs derived from or corroborated by observable market data.

 

Level 3-Inputs are unobservable inputs which reflect the reporting entity's own assumptions on what assumptions the market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability based on the best available information.

 

The carrying amounts reported in the unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets for cash, accounts receivable, tenants receivable, security deposit, inventory, prepaid expenses and other current assets, accounts payable, accrued liabilities and other payables, accrued liabilities and other payables – related parties, deferred rental income, loan payable, interest payable, interest payable – related party, Value Added Tax ("VAT") and other taxes payable, tenants' security deposit, and due to related party, approximate their fair market value based on the short-term maturity of these instruments.

  

Fair Value of Financial Instruments and Fair Value Measurements (continued)

 

At June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, intangible assets were measured at fair value on a nonrecurring basis as shown in the following tables.

 

    Quoted Price in Active Markets for Identical Assets
(Level 1)
    Significant Other Observable Inputs
(Level 2)
    Significant Unobservable Inputs
(Level 3)
    Balance at
June 30, 2019
    Impairment Loss  
Patents and other technologies   $ -     $ -     $ 1,091,903     $ 1,091,903     $    -  

  

    Quoted Price in Active Markets for Identical Assets
(Level 1)
    Significant Other Observable Inputs
(Level 2)
    Significant Unobservable Inputs
(Level 3)
    Balance at December 31,
2018
    Impairment
Loss
 
Patents and other technologies   $ -     $ -     $ 1,255,689     $ 1,255,689     $ -  

 

Cash

 

Cash consists of cash on hand and cash in banks. The Company maintains cash with various financial institutions in the PRC and United States. At June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, cash balances in PRC are $640,253 and $1,216,485, respectively. Since March 31, 2015, balances at financial institutions and state-owned banks within the PRC are covered by insurance up to RMB 500,000 (USD 73,678) per bank. At June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, cash balances in United States are $2,761,051 and $1,035,802, respectively. The Company has not experienced any losses in bank accounts and believes it is not exposed to any risks on its cash in bank accounts.

 

Concentrations of Credit Risk

 

Currently, a portion of the Company's operations are carried out in PRC. Accordingly, the Company's business, financial condition and results of operations may be influenced by the political, economic and legal environment in the PRC, and by the general state of the PRC's economy. The Company's operations in PRC are subject to specific considerations and significant risks not typically associated with companies in North America. The Company's results may be adversely affected by changes in governmental policies with respect to laws and regulations, anti-inflationary measures, currency conversion and remittance abroad, and rates and methods of taxation, among other things.

 

Financial instruments which potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash, trade accounts receivable and tenants receivable. A portion of the Company's cash is maintained with state-owned banks within the PRC, and none of these deposits are covered by insurance. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and believes it is not exposed to any risks on its cash in bank accounts. A portion of the Company's sales are credit sales which is to the customer whose ability to pay is dependent upon the industry economics prevailing in these areas; however, concentrations of credit risk with respect to trade accounts receivable and tenants receivable is limited due to generally short payment terms. The Company also performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers to help further reduce credit risk.

 

At June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, the Company's cash balances by geographic area were as follows:

 

Country:   June 30, 2019     December 31, 2018  
United States   $ 2,761,051       81.2 %   $ 1,035,802       46.0 %
China     640,253       18.8 %     1,216,485       54.0 %
Total cash   $ 3,401,304       100.0 %   $ 2,252,287       100.0 %

 

Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts

 

Accounts receivable are presented net of an allowance for doubtful accounts. The Company maintains allowances for doubtful accounts for estimated losses. The Company reviews the accounts receivable on a periodic basis and makes general and specific allowances when there is doubt as to the collectability of individual balances. In evaluating the collectability of individual receivable balances, the Company considers many factors, including the age of the balance, a customer's historical payment history, its current credit-worthiness and current economic trends. Accounts are written off after exhaustive efforts at collection.

 

Management believes that the accounts receivable are fully collectable. Therefore, no allowance for doubtful accounts is deemed to be required on its accounts receivable at June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018. The Company historically has not experienced uncollectible accounts from customers granted with credit sales.

 

Tenants Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts

 

Tenants receivable are presented net of an allowance for doubtful accounts. Tenants receivable balance consist of base rents, tenant reimbursements and receivables arising from straight-lining of rents primarily represent amounts accrued and unpaid from tenants in accordance with the terms of the respective leases, subject to the Company's revenue recognition policy. An allowance for the uncollectible portion of tenant receivable is determined based upon an analysis of the tenant's payment history, the financial condition of the tenant, business conditions in the industry in which the tenant operates and economic conditions in Freehold, New Jersey in which the property is located.

 

Management believes that the tenants receivable are fully collectable. Therefore, no allowance for doubtful accounts is deemed to be required on its tenants receivable at June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018.

 

Inventory

 

Inventory is stated at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Cost is determined using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method. A reserve is established when management determines that certain inventory may not be saleable. If inventory costs exceed expected market value due to obsolescence or quantities in excess of expected demand, the Company will record a write down in inventory for the difference between the cost and the lower of cost or estimated net realizable value. The reserve and write down are recorded based on estimates. The Company determined that certain raw material and finished goods were impaired and has written off a total of $10,074 in the six months ended June 30, 2019, as compared to none in the six months ended June 30, 2018. 

 

Property and Equipment

 

Property and equipment are carried at cost and are depreciated on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets. The cost of repairs and maintenance is expensed as incurred; major replacements and improvements are capitalized. When assets are retired or disposed of, the cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts, and any resulting gains or losses are included in income in the period of disposition. The Company examines the possibility of decreases in the value of fixed assets when events or changes in circumstances reflect the fact that their recorded value may not be recoverable.

 

Investment in Real Estate and Depreciation

 

Investment in real estate is carried at cost less accumulated depreciation and consists of building and improvement. The Company depreciates real estate building and improvement on a straight-line basis over estimated useful life. Expenditures for ordinary repair and maintenance costs are charged to expense as incurred. Expenditure for improvements, renovations, and replacements of real estate asset is capitalized and depreciated over its estimated useful life if the expenditure qualifies as betterment. Real estate depreciation expense was $39,962 and $31,806 for the three months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively. Real estate depreciation expense was $79,923 and $63,611 for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively.

 

Intangible Assets

 

Intangible assets consist of patents and other technologies. Patents and other technologies are being amortized on a straight-line method over the estimated useful life of 5 years.

 

Investment in Unconsolidated Company – Epicon Biotech Co., Ltd.

 

The Company uses the equity method of accounting for its investment in, and earning or loss of, company that it does not control but over which it does exert significant influence. The Company considers whether the fair value of its equity method investment has declined below its carrying value whenever adverse events or changes in circumstances indicate that recorded value may not be recoverable. If the Company considers any decline to be other than temporary (based on various factors, including historical financial results and the overall health of the investee), then a write-down would be recorded to estimated fair value. See Note 9 for discussion of equity method investment.

 

Impairment of Long-lived Assets

 

In accordance with ASC Topic 360, the Company reviews long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be fully recoverable, or at least annually. The Company recognizes an impairment loss when the sum of expected undiscounted future cash flows is less than the carrying amount of the asset. The amount of impairment is measured as the difference between the asset's estimated fair value and its book value. The Company did not record any impairment charge for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018 as there was no impairment indicator noted as of the filing date of this report.

 

Deferred Rental Income

 

Deferred rental income represents rental income collected but not earned as of the reporting date. The Company defers the revenue related to lease payments received from tenants in advance of their due dates. As of June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, deferred rental income totaled $13,786 and $14,136, respectively.

 

Value Added Tax

 

Avalon Shanghai and Beijing GenExosome are subject to a value added tax ("VAT") for providing medical related consulting services and performing development services and sales of developed products. The amount of VAT liability is determined by applying the applicable tax rates to the invoiced amount of medical related consulting services provided and the invoiced amount of development services provided and sales of developed products (output VAT) less VAT paid on purchases made with the relevant supporting invoices (input VAT). The Company reports revenue net of PRC's value added tax for all the periods presented in the consolidated statements of operations.

 

Revenue Recognition

 

Effective January 1, 2018, the Company began recognizing revenue under Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers ("ASC 606"), using the modified retrospective transition method. The impact of adopting the new revenue standard was not material to the Company's consolidated financial statements and there was no adjustment to beginning accumulated deficit on January 1, 2018. The core principle of this new revenue standard is that a company should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The following five steps are applied to achieve that core principle:

 

Step 1: Identify the contract with the customer

 

Step 2: Identify the performance obligations in the contract

 

Step 3: Determine the transaction price

 

Step 4: Allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract

 

Step 5: Recognize revenue when the company satisfies a performance obligation

  

In order to identify the performance obligations in a contract with a customer, a company must assess the promised goods or services in the contract and identify each promised goods or service that is distinct. A performance obligation meets ASC 606's definition of a "distinct" goods or service (or bundle of goods or services) if both of the following criteria are met:

 

The customer can benefit from the goods or service either on its own or together with other resources that are readily available to the customer (i.e., the goods or service is capable of being distinct).

 

The entity's promise to transfer the goods or service to the customer is separately identifiable from other promises in the contract (i.e., the promise to transfer the goods or service is distinct within the context of the contract).

 

If a goods or service is not distinct, the goods or service is combined with other promised goods or services until a bundle of goods or services is identified that is distinct.

 

The transaction price is the amount of consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring promised goods or services to a customer, excluding amounts collected on behalf of third parties (for example, some sales taxes). The consideration promised in a contract with a customer may include fixed amounts, variable amounts, or both. Variable consideration is included in the transaction price only to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is subsequently resolved.

 

The transaction price is allocated to each performance obligation on a relative standalone selling price basis. The transaction price allocated to each performance obligation is recognized when that performance obligation is satisfied, at a point in time or over time as appropriate.

 

Types of revenue:

 

Rental revenue from leasing commercial property under operating leases with terms of generally three years or more.

 

Service fees under consulting agreements with related parties to provide medical related consulting services to its clients. The Company is paid for its services by its clients pursuant to the terms of the written consulting agreements. Each contract calls for a fixed payment.

 

Service fees under agreements to perform development services for hospitals and other customers. The Company does not perform contracts that are contingent upon successful results.

 

Sales of developed products to hospitals and other customers.

 

 Revenue recognition criteria:

 

The Company recognizes rental revenue from its commercial leases on a straight-line basis over the life of the lease including rent holidays, if any. Straight-line rent receivable consists of the difference between the tenants' rents calculated on a straight-line basis from the date of lease commencement over the remaining terms of the related leases and the tenants' actual rents due under the lease agreements and is included in tenants receivable in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. Revenues associated with operating expense recoveries are recognized in the period in which the expenses are incurred.

 

The Company recognizes revenue by providing medical related consulting services under written service contracts with its customers. Revenue related to its service offerings is recognized as the services are performed.

 

Revenue from development services performed under written contracts is recognized as services are provided.

 

Revenue from sales of developed items to hospitals and other customers is recognized when items are shipped to customers and titles are transferred.

 

The Company does not offer promotional payments, customer coupons, rebates or other cash redemption offers to its customers.

 

Office Lease

 

When a lease contains "rent holidays", the Company records rental expense on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease and the difference between the average rental amount charged to expense and the amount payable under the lease is recorded as prepaid expenses in the consolidated balance sheets. The Company begins recording rent expense on the lease possession date.

 

Real Property Operating Expenses

 

Real property operating expenses consist of property management fees, property insurance, real estate taxes, depreciation, repairs and maintenance fees, utilities and other expenses related to the Company's rental properties.

 

Medical Related Consulting Services Costs

 

Costs of medical related consulting services includes the cost of internal labor and related benefits, travel expenses related to consulting services, subcontractor costs, other related consulting costs, and other overhead costs. Subcontractor costs were costs related to medical related consulting services incurred by our subcontractor, such as medical professional's compensation and travel costs.

 

Development Services and Sales of Developed Products Costs

 

Costs of development services and sales of developed items includes inventory costs, materials and supplies costs, depreciation, internal labor and related benefits, other overhead costs and shipping and handling costs incurred.

 

Shipping and Handling Costs

 

Shipping and handling costs are expensed as incurred and are included in cost of sales. For the three months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, shipping and handling costs amounted to $0 and $0, respectively. For the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, shipping and handling costs amounted to $0 and $25, respectively.

 

Research and Development

 

Expenditures for research and product development costs are expensed as incurred. The Company incurred research and development expense in the amount of $949,711 and $263 for the three months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively. The Company incurred research and development expense in the amount of $1,102,171 and $263 for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively.

 

Advertising Costs

 

All costs related to advertising are expensed as incurred. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2019, advertising costs amounted to $221,222 and $465,822, respectively. We did not incur any advertising expense during the three and six months ended June 30, 2018.

 

Stock-based Compensation

 

The Company accounts for its stock-based compensation awards in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") Topic 718, Compensation—Stock Compensation ("ASC 718"). ASC 718 requires all stock-based payments to employees and non-employees including grants of stock options, to be recognized as expense in the statements of operations based on their grant date fair values. The Company estimates the grant date fair value of each option award using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The use of the Black-Scholes option-pricing model requires management to make assumptions with respect to the expected term of the option, the expected volatility of the common stock consistent with the expected life of the option, risk-free interest rates and expected dividend yields of the common stock.

 

The Company periodically issues common stock, warrants and common stock options to consultants for various services. Costs of these transactions are measured at the fair value of the service received or the fair value of the equity instruments issued, whichever is more reliably measurable. The value of the common stock is measured at the earlier of (i) the date at which a firm commitment for performance by the counterparty to earn the equity instruments is reached or (ii) the date at which the counterparty's performance is complete.

 

Income Taxes

 

The Company accounts for income taxes using the asset/liability method prescribed by ASC 740, "Income Taxes." Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates that will be in effect in the period in which the differences are expected to reverse. The Company records a valuation allowance to offset deferred tax assets if, based on the weight of available evidence, it is more-likely-than-not that some portion, or all, of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The effect on deferred taxes of a change in tax rates is recognized as income or loss in the period that includes the enactment date.

 

The Company follows the accounting guidance for uncertainty in income taxes using the provisions of ASC 740 "Income Taxes". Using that guidance, tax positions initially need to be recognized in the financial statements when it is more likely than not the position will be sustained upon examination by the tax authorities. As of June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, the Company had no significant uncertain tax positions that qualify for either recognition or disclosure in the financial statements. Tax year that remains subject to examination is the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016. The Company recognizes interest and penalties related to significant uncertain income tax positions in other expense. However, no such interest and penalties were recorded as of June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018.

 

In December 2017, the United States Government passed new tax legislation that, among other provisions, lowered the corporate tax rate from 35% to 21%. In addition to applying the new lower corporate tax rate in 2018 and thereafter to any taxable income the Company may have, the legislation affects the way the Company can use and carryforward net operating losses previously accumulated and results in a revaluation of deferred tax assets and liabilities recorded on the balance sheet. Given that current deferred tax assets are offset by a full valuation allowance, these changes will have no net impact on the balance sheet. However, when the Company becomes profitable, the Company will receive a reduced benefit from such deferred tax assets.

 

Foreign Currency Translation

 

The reporting currency of the Company is the U.S. dollar. The functional currency of the parent company, AHS, Avalon RT 9, GenExosome, and Avactis, is the U.S. dollar and the functional currency of Avalon Shanghai and Beijing GenExosome, is the Chinese Renminbi ("RMB"). For the subsidiaries whose functional currency is the RMB, result of operations and cash flows are translated at average exchange rates during the period, assets and liabilities are translated at the unified exchange rate at the end of the period, and equity is translated at historical exchange rates. As a result, amounts relating to assets and liabilities reported on the statements of cash flows may not necessarily agree with the changes in the corresponding balances on the balance sheets. Translation adjustments resulting from the process of translating the local currency financial statements into U.S. dollars are included in determining comprehensive income/loss. Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are translated into the functional currency at the exchange rates prevailing on the transaction dates. Assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated into the functional currency at the exchange rates prevailing at the balance sheet date with any transaction gains and losses that arise from exchange rate fluctuations on transactions denominated in a currency other than the functional currency are included in the results of operations as incurred.

 

All of the Company's revenue transactions are transacted in the functional currency of the operating subsidiaries. The Company does not enter into any material transaction in foreign currencies. Transaction gains or losses have not had, and are not expected to have, a material effect on the results of operations of the Company.

 

Asset and liability accounts at June 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018 were translated at 6,8668 RMB to $1.00 and at 6.8785 RMB to $1.00, respectively, which were the exchange rates on the balance sheet dates. Equity accounts were stated at their historical rates. The average translation rates applied to the statements of operations for the six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018 were 6.7863 RMB and 6.3701 RMB to $1.00, respectively. Cash flows from the Company's operations are calculated based upon the local currencies using the average translation rate.

  

Comprehensive Loss

 

Comprehensive loss is comprised of net loss and all changes to the statements of equity, except those due to investments by stockholders, changes in paid-in capital and distributions to stockholders. For the Company, comprehensive loss for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019 and 2018 consisted of net loss and unrealized gain from foreign currency translation adjustment.

 

Per Share Data

 

ASC Topic 260 "Earnings per Share," requires presentation of both basic and diluted earnings per share ("EPS") with a reconciliation of the numerator and denominator of the basic EPS computation to the numerator and denominator of the diluted EPS computation. Basic EPS excludes dilution. Diluted EPS reflects the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock or resulted in the issuance of common stock that then shared in the earnings of the entity.

 

Basic net loss per share are computed by dividing net loss available to common stockholders by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of shares of common stock, common stock equivalents and potentially dilutive securities outstanding during each period. Potentially dilutive common shares consist of the common shares issuable upon the exercise of common stock options and warrants (using the treasury stock method). Common stock equivalents are not included in the calculation of diluted net loss per share if their effect would be anti-dilutive. In a period in which the Company has a net loss, all potentially dilutive securities are excluded from the computation of diluted shares outstanding as they would have had an anti-dilutive impact.

 

The following table presents a reconciliation of basic and diluted net loss per share:

 

    Three Months Ended     Six Months Ended  
    June 30,     June 30,  
    2019     2018     2019     2018  
Net loss available to Avalon GloboCare Corp. common shareholders for basic and diluted net loss per share of common stock   $ (4,357,224 )   $ (1,294,394 )   $ (8,763,040 )   $ (2,775,973 )
Weighted average common stock outstanding - basic and diluted     75,183,354       71,979,678       74,437,336       71,122,356  
Net loss per common share attributable to Avalon GloboCare Corp. common shareholders - basic and diluted   $ (0.06 )   $ (0.02 )   $ (0.12 )   $ (0.04 )

 

The following table summarizes the securities that were excluded from the diluted per share calculation because the effect of including these potential shares was antidilutive:

  

    Three Months Ended
June 30,
    Six Months Ended
June 30,
 
    2019     2018     2019     2018  
Stock options     5,070,000       2,610,000       5,070,000       2,610,000  
Warrants     1,714,288       578,891       1,714,288       578,891  
Potentially dilutive securities     6,784,288       3,188,891       6,784,288       3,188,891  

  

Business Acquisition

 

The Company accounts for business acquisition in accordance with ASC No. 805, Business Combinations. The assets acquired and liabilities assumed from the acquired business are recorded at fair value, with the residual of the purchase price recorded as goodwill. The result of operations of the acquired business is included in the Company's operating result from the date of acquisition.

 

Non-controlling Interest

 

As of June 30, 2019, Dr. Yu Zhou, director and Co-Chief Executive Officer of GenExosome, who owned 40% of the equity interests of GenExosome, which is not under the Company's control.

 

Segment Reporting

 

The Company uses "the management approach" in determining reportable operating segments. The management approach considers the internal organization and reporting used by the Company's chief operating decision maker for making operating decisions and assessing performance as the source for determining the Company's reportable segments. The Company's chief operating decision maker is the chief executive officer ("CEO") and president of the Company, who reviews operating results to make decisions about allocating resources and assessing performance for the entire Company. The Company has determined that it has three reportable business segments: real property operating segment, medical related consulting services segment, and development services and sales of developed products segment. These reportable segments offer different types of services and products, have different types of revenue, and are managed separately as each requires different operating strategies and management expertise.

 

Related Parties

 

Parties are considered to be related to the Company if the parties, directly or indirectly, through one or more intermediaries, control, are controlled by, or are under common control with the Company. Related parties also include principal owners of the Company, its management, members of the immediate families of principal owners of the Company and its management and other parties with which the Company may deal with if one party controls or can significantly influence the management or operating policies of the other to an extent that one of the transacting parties might be prevented from fully pursuing its own separate interests. The Company discloses all significant related party transactions.

 

Reclassification

 

Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation. These reclassifications have no effect on the previously reported financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

 

Reverse Stock Split

 

The Company effected a one-for-four reverse stock split of its common stock on October 18, 2016. All share and per share information has been retroactively adjusted to reflect this reverse stock split.

 

Fiscal Year End

 

The Company has adopted a fiscal year end of December 31st.

 

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

 

In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No. 2016-02, "Leases", ("ASU 842") which amended the existing accounting standards for lease accounting, including requiring lessees to recognize most leases on their balance sheets and making targeted changes to lessor accounting. ASU 842 is effective for public companies during interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted. In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-11, which permits entities to record the right-of-use asset and lease liability on the date of adoption, with no requirement to recast comparative periods.

 

The Company adopted ASU 842 effective January 1, 2019 using the optional transition method of recognizing a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of accumulated deficit on January 1, 2019. Therefore, comparative financial information was not adjusted and continues to be reported under the prior lease accounting guidance in ASU 840. The Company elected the transition relief package of practical expedients, and as a result, the Company did not assess 1) whether existing or expired contracts contain embedded leases, 2) lease classification for any existing or expired leases, and 3) whether lease origination costs qualified as initial direct costs. The Company elected the short-term lease practical expedient by establishing an accounting policy to exclude leases with a term of 12 months or less, as well as the land easement practical expedient for maintaining its current accounting policy for existing or expired land easements.

 

In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-07, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting, to expand the scope of Topic 718 to include share-based payment transactions for acquiring goods and services from nonemployees and supersedes the guidance in Subtopic 505-50, Equity - Equity-Based Payments to Non-Employees. Under ASU 2018-07, equity-classified nonemployee share-based payment awards are measured at the grant date fair value on the grant date. The probability of satisfying performance conditions must be considered for equity-classified nonemployee share-based payment awards with such conditions. ASU 2018-07 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted. The adoption of this ASU did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.

 

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework-Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement. The objective of ASU 2018-13 is to improve the effectiveness of disclosures in the notes to the financial statements by removing, modifying, and adding certain fair value disclosure requirements to facilitate clear communication of the information required by generally accepted accounting principles. The amendments are effective for all entities for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019 with early adoption permitted upon issuance of this ASU. The Company is currently evaluating the potential impact of this new guidance.

 

Other accounting standards that have been issued or proposed by FASB that do not require adoption until a future date are not expected to have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements upon adoption. The Company does not discuss recent pronouncements that are not anticipated to have an impact on or are unrelated to its consolidated financial condition, results of operations, cash flows or disclosures.