Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2021
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
NOTE 3 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from these estimates. Significant estimates during the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 include the useful life of property and equipment and investment in real estate, assumptions used in assessing impairment of long-term assets, valuation of deferred tax assets and the associated valuation allowances, and valuation of stock-based compensation.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments and Fair Value Measurements
The Company adopted the guidance of Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 820 for fair value measurements which clarifies the definition of fair value, prescribes methods for measuring fair value, and establishes a fair value hierarchy to classify the inputs used in measuring fair value as follows:
The fair value of the Company’s assets and liabilities, which qualify as financial instruments under ASC Topic 820, “Fair Value Measurement,” approximates the carrying amounts represented in the accompanying consolidated financial statements, primarily due to their short-term nature.
ASC 825-10 “Financial Instruments”, allows entities to voluntarily choose to measure certain financial assets and liabilities at fair value (fair value option). The fair value option may be elected on an instrument-by-instrument basis and is irrevocable, unless a new election date occurs. If the fair value option is elected for an instrument, unrealized gains and losses for that instrument should be reported in earnings at each subsequent reporting date. The Company did not elect to apply the fair value option to any outstanding instruments.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
At December 31, 2021 and 2020, the Company’s cash balances by geographic area were as follows:
For purposes of the consolidated statements of cash flows, the Company considers all highly liquid instruments with a maturity of three months or less when purchased and money market accounts to be cash equivalents. The Company had no cash equivalents at December 31, 2021 and 2020.
Credit Risk and Uncertainties
A portion of the Company’s cash is maintained with state-owned banks within the PRC. Balances at state-owned banks within the PRC are covered by insurance up to RMB 500,000 (approximately $79,000) per bank. Any balance over RMB 500,000 per bank in PRC will not be covered. At December 31, 2021, cash balances held in the PRC were RMB 253,813 (approximately $40,000), which were covered by such limited insurance. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and believes it is not exposed to any risks on its cash in bank accounts.
The Company maintains a portion of its cash in bank and financial institution deposits within U.S. that at times may exceed federally-insured limits of $250,000. The Company manages this credit risk by concentrating its cash balances in high quality financial institutions and by periodically evaluating the credit quality of the primary financial institutions holding such deposits. The Company has not experienced any losses in such bank accounts and believes it is not exposed to any risks on its cash in bank accounts. At December 31, 2021, the Company’s cash balances in United States bank accounts had approximately $228,000 in excess of the federally-insured limits.
Currently, a portion of the Company’s operations are carried out in PRC. Accordingly, the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations may be influenced by the political, economic and legal environment in the PRC, and by the general state of the PRC’s economy. The Company’s operations in PRC are subject to specific considerations and significant risks not typically associated with companies in North America. The Company’s results may be adversely affected by changes in governmental policies with respect to laws and regulations, anti-inflationary measures, currency conversion and remittance abroad, and rates and methods of taxation, among other things.
Financial instruments which potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of trade accounts receivable. A portion of the Company’s sales are credit sales which is to the customer whose ability to pay is dependent upon the industry economics prevailing in these areas; however, concentrations of credit risk with respect to trade accounts receivable is limited due to short-term payment terms. The Company also performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers to help further reduce credit risk.
Rent Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Rent receivable is presented net of an allowance for doubtful accounts. Rent receivable balance consists of base rents, tenant reimbursements and receivables arising from straight-lining of rents represent amounts accrued and unpaid from tenants in accordance with the terms of the respective leases, subject to the Company’s revenue recognition policy. An allowance for the uncollectible portion of rent receivable is determined based upon an analysis of the tenant’s payment history, the financial condition of the tenant, business conditions in the industry in which the tenant operates and economic conditions in Freehold, New Jersey in which the property is located.
Management believes that the rent receivable is fully collectable. Therefore, no allowance for doubtful accounts is deemed to be required on its rent receivable at December 31, 2021 and 2020.
Deferred Financing Costs
Deferred financing costs consist of legal, accounting and other costs that are directly related to the Company’s open market sale equity financing and will be charged to stockholders’ equity upon the completion of the equity offering. As of December 31, 2021 and 2020, deferred financing costs amounted to $213,279 and $222,141, respectively.
Deferred Leasing Costs
Costs incurred to obtain tenant leases are amortized using the straight-line method over the term of the related lease agreement. Such costs include lease incentives and leasing commissions. If the lease is terminated early, the remaining unamortized deferred leasing cost is written off.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are carried at cost and are depreciated on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets. The cost of repairs and maintenance is expensed as incurred; major replacements and improvements are capitalized. When assets are retired or disposed of, the cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts, and any resulting gains or losses are included in income in the period of disposition. The Company examines the possibility of decreases in the value of fixed assets when events or changes in circumstances reflect the fact that their recorded value may not be recoverable.
Investment In Real Estate and Depreciation
Investment in real estate is carried at cost less accumulated depreciation and consists of building and improvement. The Company depreciates real estate building and improvement on a straight-line basis over estimated useful life. Expenditures for ordinary repair and maintenance costs are charged to expense as incurred. Expenditure for improvements, renovations, and replacements of real estate asset is capitalized and depreciated over its estimated useful life if the expenditure qualifies as betterment.
Investment in Unconsolidated Company – Epicon Biosciences Co., Ltd.
The Company uses the equity method of accounting for its investment in, and earning or loss of, company that it does not control but over which it does exert significant influence. The Company considers whether the fair value of its equity method investment has declined below its carrying value whenever adverse events or changes in circumstances indicate that recorded value may not be recoverable. If the Company considers any decline to be other than temporary (based on various factors, including historical financial results and the overall health of the investee), then a write-down would be recorded to estimated fair value. See Note 7 for discussion of equity method investment.
Impairment of Long-lived Assets
In accordance with ASC Topic 360, the Company reviews long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be fully recoverable, or at least annually. The Company recognizes an impairment loss when the sum of expected undiscounted future cash flows is less than the carrying amount of the asset. The amount of impairment is measured as the difference between the asset’s estimated fair value and its book value. The Company did not record any impairment charge for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020.
Deferred Rental Income
Deferred rental income represents rental income collected but not earned as of the reporting date. The Company defers the revenue related to lease payments received from tenants in advance of their due dates. As of December 31, 2021 and 2020, deferred rental income totaled $8,638 and $23,510, respectively, which were included in accrued liabilities and other payables on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets.
Value Added Tax
Avalon Shanghai is subject to a value added tax (“VAT”) for providing medical related consulting services. The amount of VAT liability is determined by applying the applicable tax rates to the invoiced amount of medical related consulting services provided (output VAT) less VAT paid on purchases made with the relevant supporting invoices (input VAT). The Company reports revenue net of PRC’s value added tax for all the periods presented in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.
The Company recognizes revenue under Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”). The core principle of the revenue standard is that a company should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The following five steps are applied to achieve that core principle:
In order to identify the performance obligations in a contract with a customer, a company must assess the promised goods or services in the contract and identify each promised goods or service that is distinct. A performance obligation meets ASC 606’s definition of a “distinct” goods or service (or bundle of goods or services) if both of the following criteria are met:
If a goods or service is not distinct, the goods or service is combined with other promised goods or services until a bundle of goods or services is identified that is distinct.
The transaction price is the amount of consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring promised goods or services to a customer, excluding amounts collected on behalf of third parties (for example, some sales taxes). The consideration promised in a contract with a customer may include fixed amounts, variable amounts, or both. Variable consideration is included in the transaction price only to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is subsequently resolved.
The transaction price is allocated to each performance obligation on a relative standalone selling price basis. The transaction price allocated to each performance obligation is recognized when that performance obligation is satisfied, at a point in time or over time as appropriate.
The Company’s revenues are derived from providing medial related consulting services for its’ related parties. Revenues related to its service offerings are recognized at a point in time when service is rendered. Any payments received in advance of the performance of services are recorded as deferred revenue until such time as the services are performed.
The Company has determined that the ASC 606 does not apply to rental contracts, which are within the scope of other revenue recognition accounting standards.
Rental income from operating leases is recognized on a straight-line basis under the guidance of ASC 842. Lease payments under tenant leases are recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the related leases. The cumulative difference between lease revenue recognized under the straight-line method and contractual lease payments are included in rent receivable on the consolidated balance sheets.
The Company does not offer promotional payments, customer coupons, rebates or other cash redemption offers to its customers.
When a lease contains “rent holidays”, the Company records rental expense on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. The Company begins recording rent expense on the lease possession date.
Real Property Operating Expenses
Real property operating expenses consist of property management fees, property insurance, real estate taxes, depreciation, repairs and maintenance fees, utilities and other expenses related to the Company’s rental properties.
Medical Related Consulting Services Costs
Costs of medical related consulting services include the cost of labor and related benefits, travel expenses related to consulting services, and other overhead costs.
Research and Development
Expenditures for research and product development costs are expensed as incurred. The Company incurred research and development expense of $1,025,009 and $883,855 in the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
All costs related to advertising are expensed as incurred. For the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, advertising costs amounted to $328,565 and $294,352, respectively.
The Company accounts for its stock-based compensation awards in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 718, Compensation—Stock Compensation (“ASC 718”). ASC 718 requires all stock-based payments to employees and non-employees including grants of stock options, to be recognized as expense in the statements of operations based on their grant date fair values. The Company estimates the grant date fair value of each option award using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model.
The Company periodically issues common stock and common stock options to consultants for various services. Costs of these transactions are measured at the fair value of the service received or the fair value of the equity instruments issued, whichever is more reliably measurable. The value of the common stock is measured at the earlier of (i) the date at which a firm commitment for performance by the counterparty to earn the equity instruments is reached or (ii) the date at which the counterparty’s performance is complete.
The Company is governed by the income tax laws of China and the United States. The Company accounts for income taxes using the asset/liability method prescribed by ASC 740, “Income Taxes.” Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates that will be in effect in the period in which the differences are expected to reverse. The Company records a valuation allowance to offset deferred tax assets if, based on the weight of available evidence, it is more-likely-than-not that some portion, or all, of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The effect on deferred taxes of a change in tax rates is recognized as income or loss in the period that includes the enactment date.
The Company follows the accounting guidance for uncertainty in income taxes using the provisions of ASC 740 “Income Taxes”. Using that guidance, the benefit for tax positions taken can only be recognized in the financial statements when it is more likely than not the position will be sustained upon examination by the tax authorities. As of December 31, 2021 and 2020, the Company had no significant uncertain tax positions which would require either recognition of a liability or disclosure in the financial statements. For United States entities, tax year that remains subject to examination is the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020, 2019 and 2018. For China entities, income tax returns for the tax years ended December 31, 2017 through December 31, 2021 remain open for statutory examination by PRC tax authorities. The Company recognizes interest and penalties related to significant uncertain income tax positions in income tax expense. However, no such interest and penalties were recorded as of December 31, 2021 and 2020.
Foreign Currency Translation
The reporting currency of the Company is the U.S. dollar. The functional currency of the parent company, AHS, Avalon RT 9, Genexosome, Avactis, and Exosome, is the U.S. dollar and the functional currency of Avalon Shanghai and Beijing Genexosome, is the Chinese Renminbi (“RMB”). For the subsidiaries whose functional currency is the RMB, result of operations and cash flows are translated at average exchange rates during the period, assets and liabilities are translated at the unified exchange rate at the end of the period, and equity is translated at historical exchange rates. As a result, amounts relating to assets and liabilities reported on the statements of cash flows may not necessarily agree with the changes in the corresponding balances on the balance sheets. Translation adjustments resulting from the process of translating the local currency financial statements into U.S. dollars are included in determining comprehensive income/loss. Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are translated into the functional currency at the exchange rates prevailing on the transaction dates. Assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated into the functional currency at the exchange rates prevailing at the balance sheet date with any transaction gains and losses that arise from exchange rate fluctuations on transactions denominated in a currency other than the functional currency are included in the results of operations as incurred. All of the Company’s revenue transactions are transacted in the functional currency of the operating subsidiaries. The Company does not enter into any material transaction in foreign currencies. Transaction gains or losses have not had, and are not expected to have, a material effect on the results of operations of the Company.
Asset and liability accounts at December 31, 2021 and 2020 were translated at 6.3559 RMB and 6.5306 RMB to $1.00, respectively, which were the exchange rates on the balance sheet dates. Equity accounts were stated at their historical rates. The average translation rates applied to the statements of operations for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 were 6.4515 RMB and 6.8999 RMB to $1.00, respectively. Cash flows from the Company’s operations are calculated based upon the local currencies using the average translation rate.
Comprehensive loss is comprised of net loss and all changes to the statements of equity, except those due to investments by stockholders, changes in paid-in capital and distributions to stockholders. For the Company, comprehensive loss for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 consisted of net loss and unrealized gain from foreign currency translation adjustment.
Per Share Data
ASC Topic 260 “Earnings per Share,” requires presentation of both basic and diluted earnings per share (“EPS”) with a reconciliation of the numerator and denominator of the basic EPS computation to the numerator and denominator of the diluted EPS computation. Basic EPS excludes dilution. Diluted EPS reflects the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock or resulted in the issuance of common stock that then shared in the earnings of the entity.
Basic net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss available to common stockholders by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of shares of common stock, common stock equivalents and potentially dilutive securities outstanding during each period. For the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, potentially dilutive common shares consist of the common shares issuable upon the exercise of common stock options (using the treasury stock method). Common stock equivalents are not included in the calculation of diluted net loss per share if their effect would be anti-dilutive. In a period in which the Company has a net loss, all potentially dilutive securities are excluded from the computation of diluted shares outstanding as they would have had an anti-dilutive impact.
The following table summarizes the securities that were excluded from the diluted per share calculation because the effect of including these potential shares was antidilutive:
As of December 31, 2021, Dr. Yu Zhou, former director and former Co-Chief Executive Officer of Genexosome, who owns 40% of the equity interests of Genexosome, which is not under the Company’s control. Since the fourth quarter of 2019, the non-controlling interest has remained inactive.
The Company uses “the management approach” in determining reportable operating segments. The management approach considers the internal organization and reporting used by the Company’s chief operating decision maker for making operating decisions and assessing performance as the source for determining the Company’s reportable segments. The Company’s chief operating decision maker is the Chief Executive Officer (“CEO”) and president of the Company, who reviews operating results to make decisions about allocating resources and assessing performance for the entire Company. During the year ended December 31, 2021, the Company operates through two business segments: real property operating segment and medical related consulting services segment. During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company operates through three reportable business segments: real property operating segment, medical related consulting services segment, and development services and sales of developed products segment. These reportable segments offer different types of services and products, have different types of revenue, and are managed separately as each requires different operating strategies and management expertise.
Parties are considered to be related to the Company if the parties, directly or indirectly, through one or more intermediaries, control, are controlled by, or are under common control with the Company. Related parties also include principal owners of the Company, its management, members of the immediate families of principal owners of the Company and its management and other parties with which the Company may deal with if one party controls or can significantly influence the management or operating policies of the other to an extent that one of the transacting parties might be prevented from fully pursuing its own separate interests. The Company discloses all significant related party transactions.
Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation. These reclassifications have no effect on the previously reported financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
Fiscal Year End
The Company has adopted a fiscal year end of December 31st.
Recent Accounting Standards
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (“Topic 326”). The ASU introduces a new accounting model, the Current Expected Credit Losses model (“CECL”), which requires earlier recognition of credit losses and additional disclosures related to credit risk. The CECL model utilizes a lifetime expected credit loss measurement objective for the recognition of credit losses at the time the financial asset is originated or acquired. ASU 2016-13 is effective for annual period beginning after December 15, 2022, including interim reporting periods within those annual reporting periods. The Company expects that the adoption will not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes, as part of its Simplification Initiative to reduce the cost and complexity in accounting for income taxes. This standard removes certain exceptions related to the approach for intra period tax allocation, the methodology for calculating income taxes in an interim period and the recognition of deferred tax liabilities for outside basis differences. It also amends other aspects of the guidance to help simplify and promote consistent application of GAAP. The guidance is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. The adoption of ASU 2019 – 12 did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Other accounting standards that have been issued or proposed by FASB that do not require adoption until a future date are not expected to have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements upon adoption. The Company does not discuss recent pronouncements that are not anticipated to have an impact on or are unrelated to its consolidated financial condition, results of operations, cash flows or disclosures.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef